By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti
Web filtering, censorship of websites, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class all over the world, in democratic nations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of web controls consisted principally of establishing firewalls at key net gateways; China's well-known ''Great Firewall of China'' is without doubt one of the first nationwide web filtering platforms. this day the hot instruments for net controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new ideas, which target to normalize (or even legalize) web regulate, contain specified viruses and the strategically timed deployment of dispensed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization regulations, and nationwide details shaping recommendations. entry managed reviews in this new normative terrain. The e-book, a venture from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto's Munk Centre for foreign stories, Harvard's Berkman heart for web and Society, and the SecDev staff, bargains six large chapters that learn net regulate in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter nearby studies and nation profiles drawn from fabric collected through the ONI around the globe via a mixture of technical interrogation and box study tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and international Politics sequence
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Extra info for Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace
First-Generation Controls First-generation controls focus on denying access to specific Internet resources by directly blocking access to servers, domains, keywords, and IP addresses. This type of filtering is typically achieved by the use of specialized software or by implementing instructions manually into routers at key Internet choke points. First-generation filtering is found throughout the world, in particular among authoritarian countries, and is the phenomenon targeted for monitoring by the ONI’s methodology.
Numerous accounts allege that progovernment forces monitored opposition Web sites and disrupted planned rallies and marches. In some cases, members of the opposition were warned by cell phone not to participate in rallies or risk being beaten. In other cases, false information was disseminated by progovernment forces, leading to confusion among opposition supporters and, in one documented case, leading them into an ambush by progovernment supporters where several were severely beaten. Assessing the Evolution of Next-Generation Controls in the CIS The three generations of controls are not mutually exclusive, and several can exist concurrently.
Pdf. 21. html. 22. net/blog/2008/03/ armenia-imposes-internet-censorship-unrest-breaks-out-following-disputed-presidential-e. 23. Ronald J. Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski, ‘‘Good for Liberty, Bad for Security? Global Civil Society and the Securitization of the Internet,’’ in Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering, ed. Ronald J. Deibert, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, and Jonathan Zittrain (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 123–149. 24. As reported by ONI field researchers.
Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti