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By van Jaarsfeld E.J., de Villiers P.U.

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Proteomic approaches, by revealing polymorphisms within genes as well as differences in protein expression are therefore complementary to DNA marker and mapping approaches. Metabolomic profiling combined to genetic studies may also provide insight on the physiological bases of quantitative trait and give clues on the candidate genes to screen [93]. At last, all the tools available for reverse genetics, collections of mutants, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), RNAi (presented below) may be used to validate a candidate.

Cloning Pos. cloning Pos. cloning Pos. cloning Pos. cloning Pos. 2 Fruit size Unknown Unknown Pos. cloning Pos. cloning Pos. cloning HKT-type transporter Pos. a. a. a. a. substitution QTN Transformation Transformation Complementation Complementation Transformation Transformation Transformation Transformation Transformation No Transformation Transformation Functional proof [61, 75] [74] [59, 60] [71] [70] [72] [80] [79] [73] [78] [76] [69] Ref Table 1. Summary of the QTL cloned in plants. The gene function is indicated.

A significant difference between the means signifies that the effects of two alleles at the QTL are sufficiently different to have detectable consequences. The parameters a and d are then estimated. R2 is related to the intraclass variance s2 and to the sample size. Figure 2. The most likely position of the QTL is shown with the confidence interval associated. 26 C. Rothan and M. Causse threshold, indicates the most probable position of the QTL (Fig. 2). The confidence interval of the QTL position is thus conventionally defined as the chromosomal fragment corresponding to a reduction in LOD of 1 unit in relation to the maximum LOD, which indicates that the probability ratio has fallen by a factor of 10.

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Aisoaceae by van Jaarsfeld E.J., de Villiers P.U.

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