By C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)
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R. W. Warn. Concise Chemical Thermodynamics, Van Nostrand-Reinhold, London (1969). D. Sherwood. Introductory Chemical Thermodynamics, Longmans, London (1971). 33 3 THE THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES OF EQUILIBRIUM A chemist is frequently faced with the task of determining whether a particular process will occur under certain specified conditions and, if it does occur, of estimating its extent. In mechanical systems, such as the simple pendulum, the direction of spontaneous change is that leading to a decrease in potential energy, and at equilibrium this energy is a minimum.
Enthalpy changes associated with mixing processes are often appreciable and are commonly published in the form of 'enthalpy composition charts', which are plots of the enthalpy change resulting from the formation ofunit mass of mixture against the composition of that mixture. H or vice versa. (U+PV) :. (PV) The procedure will be made clear by means of an example. 0000 g cm- 3 respectively. V= V*[H 2 0(1)]- V*[H 20(s)] The molar volumes of water and ice are calculated from the given density data and the molar mass of H2 0, and it can be shown that the value of D.
These indirect calculations are based on Hess's law: the heat absorbed or evolved by a reaction is the same whether the reaction is carried out in one or several stages. This law is in fact a consequence of the first law of thermodynamics; asH and U are properties of state, their changes when reactants are converted to products are clearly independent of the various intermediate steps that could be visualised. The following is a typical calculation. 4 kJ mol- 1 respectively. H is required. 7 kJ mol- 1 In this, as in most simple calculations, substances such as 0 2 , C0 2 and H 2 0 that take part in several reactions, are automatically eliminated when the correct balance for the other substances has been achieved.
Applied Physical Chemistry by C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)